The carpal zone refers to the wrist region. It is composed of the structures in the picture below:
Image below further illustrates
Free Radicals in the Body
Free radicals are unstable molecules that can damage the cells in your organism. They result when atoms or molecules gain or lose electrons. They are byproducts of ongoing metabolic processes.
Antioxidants are those molecules in cells that prevent loose radicals from taking electrons and causing celldamage. Antioxidants are capable to give an electron to a free radical without becoming destabilized themselves, thus hinder the free radical chain reactions
Nutrients that act as antioxidant
Most cereals. vegetables and fruit every day. fish, coffe, strawberries or any kind of berries,etc.
Monoplegia is the paralysis of one part of the body, generally one limb. People suffering monoplegia generally preserve control of the rest of the body, but are unable to move or feel sensations in the damaged limb.
The main cause for this is a cerebral palsy, and other common causes are: nerve damages either from injurie or diseases,
Hemiplegia affecting an arm and a leg on the same side of the body, and similarly with monoplegia, a common cause is cerebral palsy. With hemiplegia, the degree of paralysis varies from person to person, and may change over time. Hemiplegia often begins with a sensation of pins and needles, progresses to muscle weakness, and escalates to complete paralysis. However, many people with hemiplegia find that their degree of functioning varies from day to day, and depending on their overall health, activity level, and other factors.
Paraplegia refers to paralysis below the waist, and usually affects both legs, the hips, and other functions, such as sexuality and elimination. Though stereotypes of paraplegia hold that people with this condition cannot walk, move their legs, or feel anything below the waist, the reality of paraplegia varies from person to person—and sometimes, from day to day.
Thus paraplegia refers to substantial impairment in functioning and movement, not necessarily a permanent and total paralysis. Rarely, people with paraplegia spontaneously recover. This may be due to brain or spinal cord functions that are not yet understood, such as regeneration of neurons. More typically, paraplegics are able to regain some functioning with physical therapy, which works to retrain the brain and spinal cord to work around limitations while strengthening muscles and nerve connections.
Quadriplegia, which is often referred to as tetraplegia, is paralysis below the neck. All four limbs, as well as the torso, are typically affected. As with paraplegia, though, the degree of disability and loss of function may vary from person to person, and even from moment to moment. Likewise, some quadriplegics spontaneously regain some or all functioning, while others slowly retrain their brains and bodies through dedicated physical therapy and exercise.
b. phenotypic variation of a trait in a particular population.
Heritability describes a statistical measure that indicates variation in phenotypes (traits present) in a particular population.
An estimate of heritability of a trait is specific to a studied population in a determined environment, and it could change over time as circumstances often change. Heritability estimates range in a scale from zero to one.
Factors leading to this will be both ambient, and genetical. The case below exemplifies envirnoment impact.See below for a clearer view:
As for exocrine organs, they release secretions. Since the pancreas is an exocrine gland its nervous or hormonal stimulation causes pancreatic secretions to be released into the duodenum through a duct. Together the secretions of alkaline and contain enzymes like lipase, amylase,etc . They are present in digestion. However the pancreas has two main functions, exocrine function and endocrine function. While exocrine cells of the pancreas produce enzymes that help digestion. An as endocrine , the islet cells of Langerhans inside the pancreas produce and secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream.
The four cameras of the heart are:
1) Right atrium = it receives venous blood from the cellars and, through the ventricular valve, sends it to the right ventricle.
2) Right ventricle = receives blood from the right atrium, which sends blood to the pulmonary artery and is in turn to the lungs for oxygenation.
3) Left atrium = receives the oxygenated blood that comes from the lungs through the pulmonary veins and in turn sends it to the left ventricle through the left atrio-ventricular valve.
4) Left ventricle = receives the oxygenated blood coming from the atrium and through the aortic valve sends it to the aortic artery, which in turn distributes it to the entire body.
The heart is made of cardiac muscle. (myocardium)
The myocardium is one of the three variations on vertebrate muscles, as shown in the image below. It contrasts to skeletal and smooth muscle in that it acts involuntary, it is a striated muscle constituting the dominant tissue that makes up heart's walls.
As the cardiac muscle posses a thick middle layer between the outer layer (called the epicardium) and the inner layer (known as endocardium) the blood is provided through coronaries (blood circulating in the coronary or heart veins).
Heart muscle cells are put together by discs, rich in collagen fibres and substances that keep it working since birth and until death.
Ventricles are responsible for irrigating with blood, as capilars are indispensable for the high energy requirements of the main muscle and motor of the organism
Below are the different muscle tissues:
Sorbitol (glucitol) is a type of sugar alcohol that human body metabolizes very slowly.
It can be obtained by the reduction of the glucose in which the aldehyde group is converted to a hydroxyl group.
If too much sorbitol is trapped in the cells of the lens, it can lead to cataracts, retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy.
The open chain structure of sorbitol is shown in the image below.